Paranoid personality disorder is a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others’
motives are interpreted as malevolent.
• Schizoid personality disorder is a pattern of detachment from social relationships and
a restricted range of emotional expression.
• Schizotypal personality disorder is a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships,
cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior.
• Antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights
• Borderline personality disorder is a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships,
self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity.
• Histrionic personality disorder is a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention
• Narcissistic personality disorder is a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and
lack of empathy.
• Avoidant personality disorder is a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy,
and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation.
• Dependent personality disorder is a pattern of submissive and clinging behavior related
to an excessive need to be taken care of.
• Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness,
perfectionism, and control.
• Personality change due to another medical condition is a persistent personality disturbance
that is judged to be due to the direct physiological effects of a medical condition
(e.g., frontal lobe lesion).
• Other specified personality disorder and unspecified personality disorder is a category
provided for two situations: 1) the individual’s personality pattern meets the general
criteria for a personality disorder, and traits of several different personality
disorders are present, but the criteria for any specific personality disorder are not met;or 2) the individual’s personality pattern meets the general criteria for a personality disorder,
but the individual is considered to have a personality disorder that is not included
in the DSM-5 classification (e.g., passive-aggressive personality disorder).
The personality disorders are grouped into three clusters based on descriptive similarities.
Cluster A includes paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. Individuals with
these disorders often appear odd or eccentric. Cluster B includes antisocial, borderline, histrionic,
and narcissistic personality disorders. Individuals with these disorders often appear dramatic,
emotional, or erratic. Cluster C includes avoidant, dependent, and obsessivecompulsive
personality disorders. Individuals with these disorders often appear anxious or
fearful. It should be noted that this clustering system, although useful in some research and educational
situations, has serious limitations and has not been consistently validated.
Moreover, individuals frequently present with co-occurring personality disorders
from different clusters. Prevalence estimates for the different clusters suggest 5.7% for disorders
in Cluster A, 1.5% for disorders in Cluster B, 6.0% for disorders in Cluster C, and
9.1% for any personality disorder, indicating frequent co-occurrence of disorders from different
clusters. Data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and
Related Conditions suggest that approximately 15% of U.S. adults have at least one personality