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Diagnostic Criteria 296.89 (F31.81) For a diagnosis of bipolar II disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a current
or past hypomanic episode and the following criteria for a current or past major depressive episode:
A. A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood
and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, lasting at least 4 consecutive
days and present most of the day, nearly every day.
B. During the period of mood disturbance and increased energy and activity, three (or more)
of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable), represent a noticeable
change from usual behavior, and have been present to a significant degree:
1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.
2. Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).
3. More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.
4. Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.
5. Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external
stimuli), as reported or observed.
6. Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or
7. Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences
(e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or
foolish business investments).
C. The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is uncharacteristic
of the individual when not symptomatic.
D. The disturbance in mood and the change in functioning are observable by others.
E. The episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational
functioning or to necessitate hospitalization. If there are psychotic features, the
episode is, by definition, manic.
F. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug
of abuse, a medication or other treatment).
Note: A full hypomanic episode that emerges during antidepressant treatment (e.g.,
medication, electroconvulsive therapy) but persists at a fully syndromal level beyond
the physiological effect of that treatment is sufficient evidence for a hypomanic episode
diagnosis. However, caution is indicated so that one or two symptoms (particularly increased
irritability, edginess, or agitation following antidepressant use) are not taken
as sufficient for diagnosis of a hypomanic episode, nor necessarily indicative of a bipolar
Major Depressive Episode
A. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week
period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms
is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.
Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly attributable to a medical condition.
1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective
report (e.g., feels sad, empty, or hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g.,
appears tearful). (Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.)
2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the
day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation).
3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than
5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every
day. (Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gain.)
4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.
5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others; not
merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).
6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.
7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional)
nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).
8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either
by subjective account or as observed by others).
9. Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without
a specific plan, a suicide attempt, or a specific plan for committing suicide.
B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational,
or other important areas of functioning.
C. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another