Typical features of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are difficulties in establishing and sustaining close relationships, associated with rigid perfectionism, inflexibility, and restricted emotional expression. Characteristic difficulties are apparent in identity, self-direction, empathy, and/or intimacy, as described below, along with specific maladaptive traits in the domains of Negative Affectivity and/or Detachment. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria A. Moderate or greater impairment in personality functioning, manifested by characteristic difficulties in two or more of the following four areas: 1. Identity: Sense of self derived predominantly from work or productivity; constricted experience and expression of strong emotions. 2. Self-direction: Difficulty completing tasks and realizing goals, associated with rigid and unreasonably high and inflexible internal standards of behavior; overly conscientious and moralistic attitudes. 3. Empathy: Difficulty understanding and appreciating the ideas, feelings, or behaviors of others. 4. Intimacy: Relationships seen as secondary to work and productivity; rigidity and stubbornness negatively affect relationships with others. B. Three or more of the following four pathological personality traits, one of which must be (1) Rigid perfectionism: 1. Rigid perfectionism (an aspect of extreme Conscientiousness [the opposite pole of Detachment]): Rigid insistence on everything being flawless, perfect, and without errors or faults, including one’s own and others’ performance; sacrificing of timeliness to ensure correctness in every detail; believing that there is only one right way to do things; difficulty changing ideas and/or viewpoint; preoccupation with details, organization, and order. 2. Perseveration (an aspect of Negative Affectivity): Persistence at tasks long after the behavior has ceased to be functional or effective; continuance of the same behavior despite repeated failures. 3. Intimacy avoidance (an aspect of Detachment): Avoidance of close or romantic relationships, interpersonal attachments, and intimate sexual relationships.4. Restricted affectivity (an aspect of Detachment): Little reaction to emotionally arousing situations; constricted emotional experience and expression; indifference or coldness. Specifiers. Trait and personality functioning specifiers may be used to record additional personality features that may be present in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder but are not required for the diagnosis. For example, other traits of Negative Affectivity (e.g., anxiousness) are not diagnostic criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (see Criterion B) but can be specified when appropriate. Furthermore, although moderate or greater impairment in personality functioning is required for the diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (Criterion A), the level of personality functioning can also be specified.